Malhotra (1999) suggested the Internet surveys using questionnaires will increase in popularity since the costs is generally lower, they can be less intrusive and they have the ability to target specific population. This has proved to be the case. Questionnaires often take the form of pop-up surveys. The key issues are:

1. Encouraging participation

Techniques that can be used are:
  • Interruption on entry – a common approach where every 100th customer is prompted
  • Continuous, for example, click on a button to complete survey
  • On registration on-site the customer can be profiled
  • After an activity such as sale or customer support, the customer can be prompted for their opinion about the service
  • Incentives and promotions (this can also be executed on independent sites)
  • By email (an email prompt to visit a website to fill a survey or a simple email survey).

2. Stages in execution

It is suggested that there are five stages to successful questionnaire survey:
  • Attract (button, pop-up, email as above)
  • Incentive (prize or offer consistent with required sample and audience)
  • Reassure (why the company is doing it – to learn, not too long and that confidentiality is protected)
  • Design and execute (brevity, relevant, position)
  • Follow-up (feedback)

3. Design

Grossnickle and Raskin (2001) suggest the following approach to structuring questionnaires:
  • Easy, interesting questions first
  • Cluster questions on same topic
  • Flow topic from general to specific
  • Flow topic from easier behavioural to more difficult attitudinal questions
  • Easy questions last, e.g. demographics or offputting questions.

Typical questions

(that can be asked for determining the effectiveness of Internet marketing are:)
  • Who is visiting the site? For example, role in buying decision? Online experience? Access location and speed? Demographics segment?
  • Why are they visiting? How often do they visit? Which information or service? Did they find it? Actions taken? (can be determined through web analytics)
  • What do they think? Overall opinion? Key areas of satisfaction? Specific likes or dislikes? What was missing that was expected?


  • Record marketing outcomes
  • Can record customer satisfaction and profiles
  • Relatively cheap to create and analyse


  • Difficulty of integrating data with other methods of data collection when service collected manually or in other information systems
  • Difficulty of recruiting respondents who complete accurately
  • Sample bias – tend to be advocate or disgruntled customers who complete

Chaffey, D. and Ellis-Chadwick, F., 2012. Digital marketing: strategy, implementation and practice (Vol. 5). Harlow: Pearson.

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